Natural enemies in apple orchards and their enhancement

Apple and pear pests are hosts to a large complex of predators and parasites, some of which are important natural regulators of pest populations. Others generally contribute to the natural regulation of pest populations to a greater or lesser extent .

The natural enemies of pests fall into the following groups:

  • Predators
  • Parasitic wasps and flies (parasitoids)
  • Pathogenic fungi, viruses and nematodes