In my previous blog I discussed the role of dose on the speed of development of pesticide resistance. I also highlighted the concern over the possible development of black-grass resistance to glyphosate. However, it must be said that nobody is sure that this will happen but just the possibility means that we have to take measures to reduce this risk.
Whilst dose is one aspect, the number of sprays of glyphosate is also an important issue: these need to be reduced to a minimum. I am reminded of a point that a local farmer made to me at an Australian conference where the introduction of GM glyphosate tolerant canola was being discussed. Responding to my question as to whether or not he would introduce this crop, he said that he would if he could identify an opportunity to avoid a glyphosate spray elsewhere in his rotation. This discussion was heavily influenced by the presence of glyphosate resistant annual rye-grass in Australia and so the need for an anti-resistance strategy on his farm was absolutely clear.
The recent Pesticide Usage Surveys carried out on behalf of the Chemical Regulations Directorate (CRD) of HSE have confirmed an ever increasing reliance on glyphosate in arable crop production. This is partly due to the decreasing number of options for effective control of black-grass within crops. Multiple applications of glyphosate to ‘stale seedbeds’ are commonly adopted before sowing winter wheat and there is a strengthening case to support such an approach for reducing high black-grass populations.
The issue is that if populations are sufficiently high to warrant multiple applications of glyphosate in order to prevent the emerged black-grass in ‘stale-seedbeds’ shading the soil and preventing further black-grass germination, then the background population is too high to grow a relative weed-free crop of winter wheat unless it is sown exceptionally late.
The obvious solution is to reduce background black-grass populations to a level where the emerged black-grass plants do not shade the soil sufficiently to prevent further black-grass emergence. The limited data suggest that this means less than 10-15 plants/m2. In addition, such a low incidence of black-grass will prevent the need to spray twice in order to keep the seedbeds in a good condition for sowing, although the number of emerging volunteer plants will also be a factor influencing decision-making.
There are other compelling reasons to reduce background black-grass numbers. As well as reducing the number of glyphosate sprays prior to sowing wheat, low numbers mean that the herbicides used to control the weed in the crop will provide higher levels of control of black-grass heads. When black-grass plants start to compete with themselves as well as the crop, reducing black-grass plant number with selective herbicides in the crop means that the survivors have less competition and produce more heads.
In addition, reducing background numbers provides more flexibility for the future. A poor herbicide performance will not be so critical and there may be more options available on sowing dates.
Hence, for a variety of reasons it is important to reduce background populations of black-grass. The often poor and variable selective control offered by herbicides in arable crops means that living on a knife-edge is no longer a realistic option. I will stop now because I recently read that one farmer’s New Year resolution is not to attend any more meetings on black-grass. Somehow, I know what he means!